ANTHROPOLOGY OPTIONAL

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ANTHROPOLOGY OPTIONAL

Anthropology is the study of people from several angles. They may relate to biology and evolution, society and culture, ecology and environment, demographics and tribes, health and disease, human development from the prenatal stage to senescence, human genetics, research methodologies, religion, marriage, and family, among other things. As a result, anthropology covers a wide range of topics.

WHY ANTHROPOLOGY AS YOUR OPTIONAL?

These days, the ANTHROPOLOGY optional is a favourite among UPSC hopefuls because the top scorers in the UPSC-Civil Services Examination receive 270+ marks each year. However, the UPSC does not favour any of its optional subjects over another, therefore when selecting an optional, the student should put their interests first.

Less reading is required in topics like anthropological theory, research technique, and demography, among others, which is one reason many candidates choose anthropology as their optional. The study of anthropology is seen as being simple for science graduates.
Science-related ideas are frequently used in the subject.
The focus of anthropology is science. As a result, the answers to questions in the Civil Service Main Exam should be concise and direct. The proper amount of flowcharts and diagrams should be added. One should practise answering questions and receive feedback in order to write a perfect response. Before taking any test, a self-evaluation is necessary. The most current syllabus has a stronger emphasis on scoring.

According to the trend, many applicants have achieved good marks and attracted candidates’ attention to select the same as their UPSC IAS Exam optional. However, always keep in mind that if you are not interested in this optional subject, it would be wise to pass on it.

BE A GAME CHANGER WITH ANTHROPOLOGY OPTIONAL AT VIMARSHA IAS

How To Approach Anthropology by Krishna Kumar

Why choose Anthropology Optional?

  • The focus of Anthropology is on Science. As a result, the answers to questions in the Civil Service Main Exam should be concise and direct. The proper amount of flowcharts and diagrams should be added.
  • One should practice answering questions and receiving feedback in order to write a perfect response. Before taking any test, a self-evaluation is necessary. The most current syllabus has a stronger emphasis on scoring.
  • According to the trend, many applicants have achieved good marks and attracted candidates’ attention to select the same as their UPSC IAS Exam optional.

WHY CHOOSE VIMARSHA IAS FOR ANTHROPOLOGY OPTIONAL?

Our course is intended for candidates of all backgrounds, and we will progress from the fundamentals to the advanced. We use a unique pedagogy that assists each student in understanding every detail of the syllabus.

Our active teaching constantly engages aspirants in learning, writing, and revising. This program has proven to be beneficial to thousands of students, and you can use it to achieve your goals.

A Four-Layered Strategy

  1. In detail coverage of the Syllabus 
  2. Daily answer writing practice and evaluation by the Faculty 
  3. Teaching in tandem with the Current Affairs
  4. Personalized Mentorship.
  • The course duration is four months.
  • Coverage of the entire syllabus is complete and comprehensive.
  • Updated study materials, as well as recent case studies Paper I and II are linked using an innovative methodology.
  • Through daily assignments, you will learn the art of writing good answers.
  • Paper II and Tribal India will be given special attention (which is rarely taught elsewhere).
  • Discussion of questions from previous years as well as anticipated questions.
  • Personalized mentoring.

LEARN FROM BEST FACULTY

Krishna Sir has been a personal mentor to Anthropology Optional students for more than 20 years. He has also assisted many students in laying a solid foundation, which has resulted in a meteoric rise in their grades (in Anthropology).


He has advised students on improving the quality of Anthropology Optional in CSE through answer writing,  keywords, and so on, and has assisted 10000+ students in improving their UPSC exam scores.

FAQs

1. Who should opt for Anthropology?

Anyone irrespective of the academic background can go for the subject.

  • Paper-1-The greater level of factual nature of this paper makes it easy to fetch higher scores and revise at the last moment.
  • Paper -2- The overlapping of most of the topics with GS paper makes it easy to understand and write answers.Here,a good command over case studies and examples will aid in fetching greater marks.

2. Is the subject static or dynamic?

90% of the subject is static! Few case studies in paper 2 and socio-cultural anthropology in paper 1 from current affairs can fetch some extra marks.

3. Does it take a long duration to prepare Anthropology?

Not at all! The syllabus is very short and it can be covered effectively in 3 months.

4. How can we score 320+ in Anthropology?

If you follow the 4-LAYERED OUTCOME-ORIENTED  STRATEGY, you can easily ace this score.

NUMBER OF CANDIDATES OPTING FOR ANTHROPOLOGY OPTIONAL

                Year No. of candidates appeared WITH ANTHRO OPTIONAL IN MAINS 
                2016 345
                2015 641
                2014 619
                2012 449
                2013 579
                2011 463

Toppers with Anthropology Optional.

  NAME 

  RANK 

MARKS 

  YEAR

SHUBHAM KUMAR 

1

320

2020

LAXMI NAGAPPAN 

45

362

2018

AKSHAT JAIN 

2

335

2018

AYUSH SINHA 

7

350

2017

ANUDEEP DURISHETTY 

1

318

2017

SACHIN GUPTA 

3

339

2017

MILIND BAPNA 

61

306

2016

KIRTHI CHEKURI

14

275

2015

NEHA KUMARI 

26

271

2014

ROAD MAP FOR ANTHROPOLOGY CONQUER PROGRAM(ACP) AT VIMARSHA IAS

1. Concept Building Classes

This will cover the entire syllabus of both paper 1 and paper 2 in a comprehensive manner.
5 Fold Division of the Lectures for Paper 1
-Basics of Anthropology
-Human Evolution and the emergence of Man:
-Socio-cultural anthropology
-Anthropological theories
-Fields of anthropology
4 Fold Division of the Lectures for Paper 2
-Archaeology
-Indian Culture and Civilization
-The tribal situation in India
-Caste,religion, language,etc

2. Class-based writing assignments and tests

The program provides a logical assessment for students to gauge their readiness. It focuses on weekly knowledge acquisition and application in answer writing.

3. Course design

Course design is based on previous year’s questions and current trends of the UPSC Main Examination as optional subjects are research-based and the majority of the questions are from critical areas of the subjects that have essentially alignment with the previous year’s questions.

4. Answer writing practice

Answer writing practice is ingrained in the classes themselves, as the program’s ultimate goal is to facilitate the right skills to cater to the demand of the question in the final exam.

5. Faculty-Made study material and handouts

Faculty-Made study material and handouts for better understanding. They are also helpful in completing the subject quickly.

6. Personalized assistance and guidance

Personalized assistance and guidance to meet the student’s individual needs. Optional comprehension is directly proportional to the level of dedication given to the subjects. A support system in the form of faculties is the best that can be found here.

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V+ OPTIONAL TEST -SERIES(OPTIONAL THROUGH 400+ QUESTIONS)

  • This program aims to cover the entire syllabus of Optional Subjects (both paper-1 & 2) through 400+ questions. 
  • The questions will be discussed in the classroom to help you understand the related concepts and the demand of the questions.
  • However, this program is an amalgamation of both where you will be discussing every concept and theory of Optional subjects in the classes along with writing mock tests which have been framed keeping in mind the current trend of UPSC.
  • This program is important for you as it will help you to understand all the concepts of Optional in a very short period that too with answer writing practice.
  • This program is for both, the freshers as well as the UPSC aspirants who have completed their optional classes as it will be providing concept-building classes as well as answer writing practice along with detailed discussions.
  • Under this program, daily 2 hours of classes will be provided in which 5 questions will be discussed. This will go on for up to 50 days.

Syllabus for Anthropology Optional Paper-1

1.1

Meaning, scope, and development of Anthropology.

1.2

Relationship with other disciplines: History, Economics, Sociology, Psychology, Political Science, Life Science, Medical Science.

1.3

Main branches of Anthropology, their scope, and relevance:

  • Social-cultural Anthropology.
  • Biological Anthropology.
  • Archaeological Anthropology.
  • Linguistic Anthropology.

 

1.4

Human Evolution and the emergence of Man:


  • Biological and Cultural factors in human evolution.
  • Theories of Organic Evolution (Pre- Darwinian, Darwinian and Post-Darwinian).
  • Synthetic theory of evolution; Brief outline of terms and concepts of evolutionary biology (Doll’s rule, Cope’s rule, Gause’s rule, parallelism, convergence, adaptive radiation, and mosaic evolution).

1.5

Characteristics of Primates; 

  • Evolutionary Trend and Primate Taxonomy; 
  • Primate Adaptations; 
  • (Arboreal and Terrestrial) Primate Taxonomy; 
  • Primate Behaviour; 
  • Tertiary and Quaternary fossil primates; 
  • Living Major Primates; 
  • Comparative Anatomy of Man and Apes; 
  • Skeletal changes due to erect posture and its implications.

 

1.6

Phylogenetic status, characteristics and geographical distribution of the following:


  • Plio-pleistocene hominids in South and East Africa – Australopith
  • Homo erectus: Africa (Paranthropus), Europe (Homo erectus heidelbergensis), Asia (Homo erectus javanicus, Homo erectus pekinensis).
  • Neanderthal Man- La-Chapelle-aux-saints (Classical type), Mt. Carmel (Progressive type).
  • Rhodesian man.
  • Homo sapiens — Cromagnon, Grimaldi and Chancelade.

1.7

The biological basis of life: 

  • The Cell, DNA structure and replication, 
  • Protein Synthesis, Gene, 
  • Mutation, 
  • Chromosomes, and Cell Division.

 

1.8

a) Principles of Prehistoric Archaeology. Chronology: Relative and Absolute Dating methods.

b) Cultural Evolution- Broad Outlines of Prehistoric cultures:

  • Paleolithic
  • Mesolithic
  • Neolithic
  • Chalcolithic
  • Copper-Bronze Age
  • Iron Age

2.1

The Nature of Culture: 


  • The concept and characteristics of culture and civilization; 
  • Ethnocentrism vis-à-vis cultural Relativism

 

2.2

The Nature of Society: 


  • Concept of Society; 
  • Society and Culture; 
  • Social Institutions; 
  • Social groups; 
  • Social stratification.

2.3

Marriage: 

  • Definition and universality; 
  • Laws of marriage (endogamy, exogamy, hypergamy, hypogamy, incest taboo); 
  • Types of marriage (monogamy, polygamy, polyandry, group marriage). 
  • Functions of marriage; 
  • Marriage regulations (preferential, prescriptive and proscriptive); 
  • Marriage payments (bride wealth and dowry).

 

2.4

Family: 

  • Definition and universality; 
  • Family, household and domestic groups; 
  • functions of family; 
  • Types of family (from the perspectives of structure, blood relation, marriage, residence and succession); 
  • Impact of urbanization, industrialization, and feminist movements on family.

2.5

Kinship: 


  • Consanguinity and Affinity; 
  • Principles and types of descent (Unilineal, Double, Bilateral, Ambilineal); Forms of descent groups (lineage, clan, phratry, moiety, and kindred); 
  • Kinship terminology (descriptive and classificatory); 
  • Descent, Filiation and Complementary Filiation; 
  • Descent and Alliance.

 

3

Economic organization:

  • Meaning, scope and relevance of economic anthropology; 
  • Formalist and Substantivist debate; 
  • Principles governing production, distribution and exchange (reciprocity, redistribution and market), in communities, subsisting on hunting and gathering, fishing, swiddening, pastoralism, horticulture, and agriculture; globalization and indigenous economic systems.

4

Political organization and Social Control:

  • Band, tribe, chiefdom, kingdom and state; 
  • concepts of power, authority and legitimacy; 
  • social control, law, and justice in simple societies

 

5

Religion: 

  • Anthropological approaches to the study of religion (evolutionary, psychological and functional); monotheism and polytheism; 
  • sacred and profane; 
  • myths and rituals; 
  • forms of religion in tribal and peasant societies (animism, animatism, fetishism, naturism and totemism); 
  • religion, magic and science distinguished; 
  • magico- religious functionaries (priest, shaman, medicine man, sorcerer and witch).

6.

Anthropological theories:

  • Classical evolutionism (Tylor, Morgan, and Frazer)
  • Historical particularism (Boas); Diffusionism (British, German and American)
  • Functionalism (Malinowski); Structural- functionalism (Radcliffe-Brown)
  • Structuralism (Levi – Strauss and E. Leach)
  • Culture and personality (Benedict, Mead, Linton, Kardiner and Cora – du Bois).
  • Neo – evolutionism (Childe, White, Steward, Sahlins and Service)
  • Cultural materialism (Harris)
  • Symbolic and interpretive theories (Turner, Schneider and Geertz)
  • Cognitive theories (Tyler, Conklin)
  • Post- modernism in anthropology

7. 

Culture, language and communication: 

  • Nature, origin and characteristics of language; 
  • verbal and non-verbal communication; 
  • social context of language use.

8. 

Research methods in anthropology:

  • Fieldwork tradition in anthropology
  • Distinction between technique, method and methodology
  • Tools of data collection: observation, interview, schedules, questionnaire, Case study, genealogy, life-history, oral history, secondary sources of information, participatory methods.
  • Analysis, interpretation and presentation of data.

 

9.1

Human Genetics 


  • Methods and Application: Methods for study of genetic principles in man-family study (pedigree analysis, twin study, foster child, co-twin method, cytogenetic method, chromosomal and karyo-type analysis), biochemical methods, immunological methods, D.N.A. technology and recombinant technologies.

9.2

Mendelian genetics in man-family study 


single factor, multifactor, lethal, sub-lethal and polygenic inheritance in man.

9.3

Concept of genetic polymorphism and selection


  • Mendelian population, Hardy-Weinberg law; 
  • causes and changes which bring down frequency – mutation, isolation, migration, selection, inbreeding and genetic drift. Consanguineous and non-consanguineous mating, genetic load, genetic effect of consanguineous and cousin marriages.

9.4

Chromosomes and chromosomal aberrations in man, methodology.


  • Numerical and structural aberrations (disorders).
  • Sex chromosomal aberrations – Klinefelter (XXY), Turner (XO), Super female (XXX), intersex and other syndromic disorders.
  • Autosomal aberrations – Down syndrome, Patau, Edward and Cri-du-chat syndromes.
  • Genetic imprints in human disease, genetic screening, genetic counseling, human DNA profiling, gene mapping and genome study.

9.5

Race and racism 


  • The biological basis of morphological variation of non-metric and metric characters. 
  • Racial criteria, racial traits in relation to heredity and environment; 
  • biological basis of racial classification, racial differentiation and race crossing in man.

9.6

a) Age, sex and population variation as genetic marker- ABO, Rh blood groups, HLA Hp, transferring, Gm, blood enzymes.


b) Physiological characteristics-Hb level, body fat, pulse rate, respiratory functions and sensory perceptions in different cultural and socio-economic groups.

9.7

Concepts and methods of Ecological Anthropology. 


  • Bio-cultural Adaptations 
  • Genetic and Non- genetic factors. 
  • Man’s physiological responses to environmental stresses: 
  • hot desert, 
  • cold, high altitude climate.

9.8

Epidemiological Anthropology: 


  • Health and disease. 
  • Infectious and non-infectious diseases. 
  • Nutritional deficiency-related diseases.

10.

Concept of human growth and development:

  • stages of growth – pre-natal, natal, infant, childhood, adolescence, maturity, senescence.
  • Factors affecting growth and development genetic, environmental, biochemical, nutritional, cultural and socio-economic.
  • Ageing and senescence. Theories and observations – biological and chronological longevity. Human physique and somatotypes. Methodologies for growth studies.

11.1

Relevance of menarche, menopause and other bioevents to fertility. Fertility patterns and differentials.

11.2

Demographic theories- biological, social and cultural.

11.3

Biological and socio-ecological factors influencing fecundity, fertility, natality and mortality.

12

Applications of Anthropology:

  • Anthropology of sports, 
  • Nutritional anthropology, 
  • Anthropology in designing of defence and other equipments, 
  • Forensic Anthropology, 
  • Methods and principles of personal identification and reconstruction, 
  • Applied human genetics 
  • Paternity diagnosis, genetic counseling and eugenics, 
  • DNA technology in diseases and medicine, 
  • serogenetics and cytogenetics in reproductive biology.

                     

         

                                                                Paper II

1.1

Evolution of the Indian Culture and Civilization


  • Prehistoric (Palaeolithic, Mesolithic, Neolithic and Neolithic 
  • Chalcolithic).
  • Protohistoric (Indus Civilization): Pre- Harappan, Harappan and post- Harappan cultures.Contributions of tribal cultures to Indian civilization.

1.2

Palaeo 


  • Anthropological evidences from India with special reference to Siwaliks and Narmada basin (Ramapithecus, Sivapithecus and Narmada Man).

1.3

Ethno-archaeology in India: 


  • The concept of ethnoarchaeology; 
  • Survivals and Parallels among the hunting, foraging, fishing, pastoral and peasant communities including arts and crafts producing communities.

2.

Demographic profile of India 

  • Ethnic and linguistic elements in the Indian population and their distribution. 
  • Indian population – factors influencing its structure and growth.

3.1

The structure and nature of the traditional Indian social system 

  • Varnashrama, 
  • Purushartha, 
  • Karma, 
  • Rina and Rebirth.

3.2

Caste system in India 

  • structure and characteristics, 
  • Varna and caste, 
  • Theories of origin of caste system, 
  • Dominant caste, 
  • Caste mobility, 
  • Future of caste system, 
  • Jajmani system, 
  • Tribe- caste continuum.

3.3

Sacred Complex and Nature 


  • Man
  • Spirit Complex.

3.4

Impact of Buddhism, Jainism, Islam and Christianity on Indian society.

4.

Emergence and growth of anthropology in India-Contributions of the 18th, 19th and early 20th Century scholar-administrators. Contributions of Indian anthropologists to tribal and caste studies.

5. 1

Indian Village: 

  • Significance of village study in India; 
  • Indian village as a social system; 
  • Traditional and changing patterns of settlement and inter-caste relations; 
  • Agrarian relations in Indian villages; 
  • Impact of globalization on Indian villages.

5.2

Linguistic and religious minorities and their social, political and economic status.

5.3

Indigenous and exogenous processes of socio-cultural change in Indian society: Sanskritization, Westernization, Modernization; 


  • Inter-play of little and great traditions; 
  • Panchayati raj and social change; 
  • Media and social change.

 

6.1

Tribal situation in India 


  • Bio-genetic variability, linguistic and socio-economic characteristics of tribal populations and their distribution.

6.2

Problems of the tribal Communities 


  • land alienation, poverty, indebtedness, low literacy, poor educational facilities, unemployment, underemployment, health and nutrition.

6.3

Developmental projects and their impact on tribal displacement 


  • problems of rehabilitation. 
  • Development of forest policy and tribals. 
  • Impact of urbanization and industrialization on tribal populations.

7.1

Problems of exploitation and deprivation of Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and Other Backward Classes. 


  • Constitutional safeguards for Scheduled Tribes and Scheduled Castes.

7.2

Social change and contemporary tribal societies: 


  • Impact of modern democratic institutions, development programmes and welfare measures on tribals and weaker sections.

7.3

The concept of ethnicity; 


  • Ethnic conflicts and political developments; 
  • Unrest among tribal communities; 
  • Regionalism and demand for autonomy; 
  • Pseudo-tribalism; 
  • Social change among the tribes during colonial and post-Independent India.

8.1

Impact of Hinduism, Buddhism, Christianity, Islam and other religions on tribal societies.

8.2

Tribe and nation state – a comparative study of tribal communities in India and other countries.

9.1

History of administration of tribal areas, tribal policies, plans, programmes of tribal development and their implementation.


The concept of PTGs (Primitive Tribal Groups), their distribution, special programmes for their development. Role of N.G.O.s in tribal development.

9.2

Role of anthropology in tribal and rural development.

9.3

Contributions of anthropology to the understanding of regionalism, communalism, and ethnic and political movements.

 

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